Stocks and shares views
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Action - is a security which gives the holder the right to receive part of the company's profits in the form of dividends and a portion of the company's assets. Some shares also entitle the shareholder to participate in the management of the company.
Some semblance of shares existed in ancient Rome and even in the ancient Egyptian state, but recent history has shares of about four centuries.
The prototype of the shares appeared in the 17th century in one of the world's centers of trade in the Netherlands. Merchants and bankers started to give loans to businessmen against securities. Unlike IOUs for these securities was recorded no interest rate, and the share of the company's profits, which would qualify the person who invested their capital. The modern form of the shares acquired in the 17th century in England. The first joint-stock companies became Ossetian and Vestynskaya companies, as well as the insurance company Lloyds. They released a paper stock as strictly established form fixed contributions of the holder, the degree of his participation in the management of the company and establishing the principle of correspondence between his contribution and the amount of dividends payable.
The first action in the modern Russian, or rather Soviet history, were traditional, ie paper. In June 1990, it issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers, which has officially been put into circulation the concept of "action" and "bond". State-owned enterprises engaged in droves release of beautifully designed pieces of paper, which proudly called Shares. Some of them were issued to employees in lieu of payment of premiums and thirteenth salary, however, there is little indignant because the usual money and in years to buy something, was virtually impossible. However, most likely it was a trade deficit contributed to the formation of yet completely wild, but still the securities market. Money is rapidly devalued, and to somehow keep their savings, people rushed to invest in shares of companies with high-sounding titles.
Now the Russian stock market is on the rise. Currently, members of the Russian stock exchange trading system for issuing quotations and transactions, available in more than 400 securities. Of course, someone can say that in comparison with the New York Stock Exchange, where it is constantly traded securities of more than 3,000 companies, it is not so much. But we should not forget that in New York, the biggest stock exchange trading in the world, and the experience of its work dates back several centuries. But in our country, more and more people are starting to look at the stock market as an instrument to preserve and increase your money. Purchase of shares, comfortable and had enough popular form of investment, but the market does not have a tape measure, and then you need to know when what stocks to buy and which to sell, because in contrast to the banks, there is no guarantee on the solid percent of the stock market.
Shares - ordinary and preference
Shareholders of an enterprise can be divided into two parts, to the owners of ordinary shares and preference shares. Ordinary, that is, common shares entitle their holder not only to receive dividends, but also the right to vote at the shareholders' meeting. The owners of the preferred shares, the right to participate in managing the company denied. Homeland shares assumed Holland - Amsterdam in 1611 formed the first stock exchange.
Major trading companies, selling shares to raise money for the expedition to India and China. The world's first joint-stock company "The Dutch company Ossetian" capital was equal to 65 tons of gold were paid huge dividends to shareholders, on average 20-22 per cent per share. Even in those days, these securities were trustworthy financial resources, they can be easily exchanged for cash. In Russia, the shares were already in the 19th century with the opening of the first stock exchanges. By the early 20th century, it has already developed a mechanism of exchange, held fairly large securities transactions. At that time, there were various subspecies and shares, for example, there was the so-called preference share, but at the beginning of the First World War, official exchanges were closed. After a brief "Nepal" period, the stock market in Russia has ceased to exist, and only during the restructuring, from scratch, the story of its revival began. By the time Europe had already accumulated a wealth of experience, the world's first museum of the securities opened in Switzerland.
If you have a little luck in trading on the stock market, do not despair and do not consider yourself a failure, because it has happened, and with a very well-known people. For example, Ser Isaac Newton, who held in 1720, no small as Managing royal mint, which began during the time of exchange of fever, said "I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the extent of the madness of the crowd." On this basis, it is sold for 7000 pounds of its shares in the South Sea Company, and made a profit of about 100 percent. However, when the excitement reached a peak of Newton, nevertheless, succumbed to general mood, and again bought shares, but at a higher price, as a result, after the collapse of the company, he has lost 20 000 pounds. Later, Newton until his death, and could not hear about the South Seas.
As history shows, no possession of extensive knowledge in many different areas, or even the existence of a scientific degree is no guarantee of success when trading in the stock market. Much more useful bring developed intuition and practical experience.
Debt securities - a document certifying the right lender physical or legal person to return the loan, to be repaid in the future under certain conditions.
Such papers are divided into two categories, bonds and promissory notes. Bond confirms that its owner paid for it and then have the right to present to the payment of the nominal value. The organization also issued bonds shall pay a fixed percentage of the nominal value, or income, in the form of winnings or payment bond coupons. Bill, this is just an IOU, but made up in some form and properly certified.
Mankind has always loved paper, the prototype of bonds and notes are IOUs. They existed in ancient Egypt and Rome. In the usual manner, these securities were 6-7 centuries ago, and entered into circulation in the 14th century. The truth is they did not let us, they talked about the formation of the first in the history of public borrowing markets. Especially distinguished in this field, countries such as Germany, Great Britain and the distant China. Scientists suggest that the bill appeared somewhat earlier bonds, in the 12th century, is considered the birthplace of medieval Italy. In Russia, the bill came into circulation in the 17th century in the form of a transfer or loan letter. When Peter first, this security as well, the first time was used as a means to transfer money from one place to another. Bonds appeared in Russia a little later, in the mid-18th century. Bonds are issued by companies to raise additional funds, and the main thing is done with the help of bonds cover the state budget deficit.
The concept of reliability and debt securities, has long been the exact opposite for the people of our country. Suffice it to recall how many times the state actually lied to its citizens.
At first, like a voluntary subscription to government bonds gradually turned into a forced, then, of course the numerous requests of the workers, the state has ceased to pay interest on it, and in 1957 was generally stated that the bonds will be repaid, but only through what some 20 years.
However, over the past few years, the citizens trust in the profitability of investing in bonds has been almost restored. Some experts say that in recent years the yield on Russian government bonds of the euro is comparable with the yield of US government bonds, respectively, in the international financial market, Russia is already perceived as a reliable borrower. Stock market analysts believe that in many respects it is promoted by the policy of the Russian Ministry of Finance, as well as the favorable economic situation, high oil prices, which provide a large influx of money into the economy and the budget.
Bank - a financial institution that accumulates temporarily free funds in deposits and offers them for temporary use in the form of loans or credit loans. In addition, banks acting as intermediaries in the mutual payments and settlements between enterprises, institutions and individuals…